Global Politics, International High Finance, Propaganda

Sunday, 18 January 2009

Will Brighton Be Swallowed By The Sea

Will Brighton be Swallowed by the Sea? Will Climate Change Destroy My City?

 
This article is about NATURAL Climate Change. The type of Climate Change that the Guardian, the BBC and most politicians deny exists yet also say that they can somehow stop.  They say that they can "Stop Climate Change" but I say that they are lying.


In only 20 times the length of time since the Battle of Hastings,
The Polar Ice Cap has shrunk from London to the other side of Greenland
And the English Channel has filled with sea water.

In only 100 times the length of time since the Battle of Hastings,
The Polar Ice Cap has expanded from the other side of Greenland all the way to London and then back again.
And the English Channel has emptied of sea water and then filled-up again.
 

Many people here in Brighton seem convinced that man-made carbon dioxide is going to cause the sea-level to rise and drown the city. They believe that Man-Made "Carbon" (as they now call it) will drown us all. But in particular they believe that only if humans stop producing carbon-dioxide will we avoid this deluge.

They seem to think that the sea level has always been the same and will only change because of MAN-MADE carbon (dioxide), and that mankind has to stop producing this "carbon" in order to stop the sea-level from rising.

So, although I am not a geologist, I did a little academic research into the local geology to see if they were right

THE ENGLISH CHANNEL HAS EMPTIED AND THEN FILLED AGAIN FIVE TIMES IN THE LAST 500,000 YEARS

I hope to show that - according to some geologists who have actually studied the geology of the English Channel - the English Channel has emptied and then filled again five times in the last half-million years.
 
If you had lived in Brighton for the last 500,000 years you would have seen the English Channel empty of seawater and then fill-up again FIVE times

Whenever the English Channel emptied, Brighton would have been at the top a cliff and you would have been able to look down at the dry floor of the English Channel.

Whenever the English Channel filled up again, Brighton would have been a sea-side town..

THE SEA LEVEL GRAPH

Below is a graph of the sea-level changes over the last 500,000 years which I shall refer to here as "The Sea Level Graph".


 
The graph was taken from a documentary called "Megaflood- how Britain became an island" which is narrated by Dr Jenny Collier of the Department of Earth Science and Engineering in Imperial College London.

(The graph itself gives an academic reference to "Rabineau et al.,2006" which is probably :- "Paleo sea levels reconsidered from direct observation of paleoshoreline position during Glacial Maxima (for the last 500,000 yr)"

This same graph is also used in a documentary called "Walking Through Time" shown on Channel 4 Both documentaries are worth watching - AFTER you have finished reading this article.

Starting on the right of the Sea Level Graph at 500,000 years ago - and moving right to left - you will see that:-
  • There appears to be a cycle of about 100,000 years. 
    The sea-level goes down and then up again about every 100,000 years.
  • There appears to be a cycle of about 150 meters in height.
    The sea-level goes down and then up again about 150 meters each way.
  • The sea level first decreases and then increases again 5 times over a period of 500,000 years.
  • The sea-level comes up about 4 times as quick as it goes down.
  • Going up takes about 20,000 years, which is about 7.5 mm per year.
    (Note that NOAA says the sea level is currently rising at 1.7-1.8 millimeters per year which is only 1/5 of the average rate shown on the graph.)
Glacial/Inter-Glacial

The troughs of the graph are labelled "Glacial" and the peaks of the graph are labelled "Inter-Glacial." In other words - in Glacial periods the sea level is at its lowest and in Inter-Glacial periods the sea level is at its highest.

The documentaries explain these Glacial/Inter-Glacial phenomena by stating that during "glaciation" periods it is very cold. So cold that a lot of water is frozen into ice and locked into ice sheets such as the Polar Ice Cap. Since the water is in the ice sheets as ice, it isn't in the sea as liquid water - so the sea level is low during Glacial periods.

Later, during the Inter-Glacials the climate is warm enough to melt the ice and turn it into water that flows into the sea, causing the sea level to rise. So the sea level is high during Inter-Glacial periods.

Put simply, water keeps freezing into ice (it's solid form) causing the sea-level to go down, and then melting back into its liquid form causing the sea-level to go up.

We've had five Glacials in the last 500,000 years and 4 Inter-Glacials and are currently in an Inter-Glacial which the geologists call:- "The Holocene Inter-Glacial"

Note:- The Quaternary Period mentioned in the Sea Level Graph is divided into two epochs:
  • The Pleistocene
    2.6 million years ago to 11.7 thousand years ago and
  • The Holocene
    11.7 thousand years ago to today. The Holocene is basically the time since the end of the last ice age.

How High Is 150 Meters?



You can use the picture to the left to help visualize what 150m is.

The picture shows the seafront of Brighton and its new building called the "i360" which is 162m tall. If you chop about 12 meters off the top then you have 150m.

According to the Sea Level Graph Brighton is regularly as far above the sea-level as the top of the i360 is above the beach.

The Sea Level Graph shows that the sea level goes down and then up again by (about) the height of the i360, roughly every hundred thousand years.

It takes a lot longer to down than to come up, but when it does come up then it peaks at about 20 meters higher than it is now.

The sea level today is shown on the Sea Level Graph as a black horizontal line labelled "today's mean sea level"

Every hundred thousand years or so, Brighton is 20 meters below the sea level. That's about one eighth the height of the i360.

Nature drowns Brighton in seawater every hundred thousand years - NATURALLY

Here's another picture of the i360, with a human being circled in red to show the scale.

The sea level at Brighton has been rising since the coldest bit of the last Glacial Maximum (or LGM) which was about 20,000 years ago. It seems likely that it will continue to rise until the beginning of the next Glacial.


Try and imagine the sea to have risen up one eighth the height of the i360, because that's 20 meters - the height that Nature drowns Brighton in every hundred thousand years - NATURALLY

The last time that this happened was about 100,000 years ago during the last Inter-Glacial often called The Eemian.

Then the sea level spent 80,000 years falling about the height of the i360 before spending about 20,000 years rising back again to where it is now. NATURALLY.


The English Channel today is at most 80 meters deep between Brighton and France.

This map of the depth of the English Channel today shows that the sea never gets deeper than 80 meters between Brighton and France

The map is from the University Of Sussex http://www.sussex.ac.uk/geography/researchprojects/coastview/Offshore/offshore.htm
Beside it is the following text:-
During Quaternary times there were a series of global climatic variations (oscillations) which comprised glacial periods characterized by the growth of polar ice caps, and interglacial periods characterized by the decay of polar ice caps. 
During glacial periods sea level fell to levels as low as –120 m below present day sea level as the polar ice caps and continental glaciers locked in enormous quantities of seawater 
During interglacial periods sea level generally rose to present day levels. There may have been as many as 20 glacial–interglacial cycles during the 2 million or so years of the Quaternary when sea level rose and fell.
This means that there may have been as many as 20 cycles of cold-then-warm in the last 2 million years, including the 5 that we are focussing on here.

/div>
When the sea level was 120 meters lower than it is now, Brighton used to be on the edge of a tall cliff overlooking the English Channel, as speculatively visualized in the picture on the left.

Note that (according to the map above) the bottom of the English Channel is only 80 meters lower than the current sea level.

80 meters is about half the height of the i360. Which means that if we moved the i360 to the middle of the channel, half of it would be sticking out of the water.

However, every 100,000 years or so the sea level drops the entire height of the i360.

Which means that sometimes the bottom of the English channel is about half the height of the i360 ABOVE sea level.

During these times the Channel does not have any seawater in it at all, thus - if you were in Brighton - you could see the bottom, which would be dry land.
"Britain has been occupied by human beings for the past 500,000 years and during that time sea levels have dropped, linking our land to Europe on five occasions,' said geologist Sanjeev Gupta. 'In fact, we were more often connected to the continent than we have been an island. Our current status is really the unusual one."
says Dr Sanjeev Gupta in The Guardian in 2003
 
 

HOW THE ENGLISH CHANNEL WAS FORMED
 

Brighton, Dover, Calais and the English Channel as they are today.

 

 
Brighton, Dover, Calais and the English Channel as they are today:- geologically.

The similarity between rocks on both sides of the English Channel suggest that they were once connected in a way that is depicted in the map below.

 

Geologists think that in the past England was connected to France by chalk hills where today there is a bit of the English Channel called "The Straights Of Dover

They call the land that connected England to France the "Weald–Artois Anticline"

The current coastlines are outlined in yellow dots.

 

The Origin Of The Straights of Dover


Several modern geologists contend that the part of the English Channel called "The Straights of Dover" were carved out by a catastrophic megaflood..


"A catastrophic megaflood separated Britain from France hundreds of thousands of years ago, changing the course of British history, according to research recently published in the journal Nature (Nature 448, 342-345 (19 July 2007) ).

The study was led by Sanjeev Gupta and Jenny Collier from the Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London and is called "Catastrophic flooding origin of shelf valley systems in the English Channel".

This picture is taken from their article in the journal "Nature.".

Basically, there is a big lake shown in blue which is full of freshwater not seawater. It suddenly breaks through the "Weald–Artois Anticline" gouging out the "Straights Of Dover"

The floodwater rushes down the channel towards the sea.

The map pictured here has several features worth noticing as itemised below.

FEATURE 1 - THE HUGE ICESHEET


Most of the map is covered in ice - shown here in black for emphasis.

This ice stretches all the way to the North Pole. There is so much ice that the Polar Ice Cap extends all the way to London
"At the time, glaciers pushed down from the north pole to the tip of north London and England's southern coast was reachable from France by a broad land bridge."
from :- "English channel carved by huge ancient flood" The Guardian" Ian Sample, science correspondent Wednesday 18 July 2007

FEATURE 2 - THE ENGLISH CHANNEL HAS NO SEA-WATER IN IT

 
There is no sea water in the English Channel shown on the map - the English Channel is emphasized here in red.

There is no sea water in the English Channel because there is so much water locked up in the ice that the sea level has dropped below the bottom of the Channel. The English channel is dry land - high and dry above the sea .

It does however have freshwater rivers running through it. According to the map, The Seine, the Somme and the Solent all flow through it on their way to the sea.  The sea is off the edge of the map to the left.

It has to be stressed here that the Channel can NOT be flooded with sea water if it also contains rivers. Rivers of freshwater don't flow underneath seas of saltwater. Either there are freshwater rivers there or the sea is there. You cannot have both. And the map shows rivers.

Gupta says in the Guardian https://www.theguardian.com/science/2007/jul/18/geography.geology
"Ten thousand years ago, at the end of the last ice age, with much of the world's water still trapped in giant glaciers and ice caps, sea levels were many feet below their current level. The river Arun, which now enters the Channel at Littlehampton, then ran on for several miles before flowing into a valley that had been carved by a south-flowing river created by the combined waters of the Thames, Rhine and Seine."

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Here's more evidence of the English Channel not having any seawater in it at the time of the megaflood. This illustration is from a BBC article about the megaflood called "Megaflood   made Island Britain"

- it also shows rivers (like the Solent and the Seine) flowing down the channel and the channel itself to be mostly dry land. It goes on to say:-
"It is believed that hundreds of thousands of years ago, when ice sheets had pushed down from Scotland and Scandinavia, there existed a narrow isthmus linking Britain to continental Europe.

This gently up-folding chalk ridge was perhaps some 30m higher than the current sea level in the English Channel. 
Palaeo-researchers think it bounded a large lake to the northeast that was filled by glacial meltwaters fed by ancient versions of the rivers Thames and Rhine.
Then - and they are not sure of the precise date - something happened to break the isthmus known as the Weald-Artois ridge." 
 

FEATURE 3 - THE MAP SHOWS THE SITUATION 450,000 YEARS AGO DURING A "GLACIAL"


About 450,000 years ago (as emphasized by the vertical black bar in the graph) the sea level has dropped about 120 meters because there is so much water locked up in the ice sheets.

The graph shows that the sea level is going to rise, and it seems reasonable to infer that the sea level will rise because the climate gets warmer and melts the ice.(see "Superimposed Graphs" below)

The drop in sea-level happened four more times until about 20,000 years ago, which was the last Glacial (cold) period. The sea level was 150 meters lower then than it is now and the English Channel was above sea level.

At this time The Polar Ice Cap - the North Pole - stretched down to London. ( as shown in "Feature 1" above)

Notice that the peaks of the graph  (labelled "Inter-Glacials") show a sea-level HIGHER than the average sea-level is today.

Brighton today is a sea-side town because it is on the horizontal line labelled "today's mean sea level line" on the Sea Level Graph. This means that when the sea level is higher than that line it is higher than Brighton is today.

So, according to the Sea Level Graph, Brighton would have been drowned by sea-water four times since the Straights of Dover were formed.

During Inter-Glacials Brighton would have been drowned by as many as 20 meters of sea water. The last time that this happened was about 100,000 years ago, when Brighton was 20 meters below sea level.

Then the sea level fell for 80,000 years to the point where the bottom of the English channel was dry land (again) and Brighton was on the edge of a cliff over-looking a dry Channel floor (again.)

Then, about 20,000 years ago, the sea level started to rise (again.) At the moment it is about 20 meters below the highest levels that it reached in the past half-million years.

This suggests that perhaps in the future Brighton will be 20m under the sea - (again.)
 

 
The thick horizontal black line marks 80 metres below current sea level. It marks the depth of the bottom of the English channel.

When the red line is below the thick black line the bottom of the English channel is above sea level. So roughly about 30% of the time the bottom of the English Channel is above sea level.

When the red line is below the thin black line labelled "today's mean sea level" then Brighton is above sea level.  So roughly about 90% of the time Brighton is above sea level.

When the red line is above the thin black line labelled "today's mean sea level" then Brighton is below sea level. So roughly about 10% of the time Brighton is below sea level.

It is only when the red line crosses the thin black line that Brighton is at sea level.  The big black arrows point to a pair of such crossing points. Brighton is only at sea level for much less than 1% of the time.

For most of the time Brighton is well above sea level, and when it isn't above sea level it is mostly below sea level.

Brighton is only at sea level at crossing places like where the big black arrows point to.
 

TEMPERATURE AND HUMAN HABITATION




"The evidence suggests there were eight major incursions All but the last - about 12,000 years ago - were unsuccessful A number of major palaeo-sites mark the periods of influx. Extreme cold made Britain uninhabitable for thousands of years"
from:- "Britain's human history revealed" BBC News, 5 September 2006 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/5317762.stm
This graph of Human Habitation of the UK is from from:- "Britain's human history revealed" BBC News, 5 September 2006

"Eight times humans came to try to live in Britain and on at least seven occasions they failed - beaten back by freezing conditions

Scientists think they can now write a reasonably comprehensive history of the occupation of these isles. It stretches from 700,000 years ago and the first known settlers at Pakefield in Suffolk, through to the most recent incomers just 12,000 years or so ago.

The evidence comes from the Ancient Human Occupation of Britain Project. This five-year undertaking by some of the UK's leading palaeo-experts has reassessed a mass of scientific data."

"The project has established that a see-sawing climate and the presence of intermittent land access between Britain and what is now continental Europe allowed only stuttering waves of immigration.
But the story from then on is largely one of failed colonisation, as retreating and advancing ice sheets at first exposed the land and then covered it up

"Britain has suffered some of the most extreme climate changes of any area in the world during the Pleistocene," said Professor Stringer.

"So places in say South Wales would have gone from something that looked like North Africa with hippos, elephants, rhinos and hyenas, to the other extreme: to an extraordinary cold environment like northern Scandinavia."
"Scientists now think there were seven gaps in the occupation story - times when there was probably no human settlement of any kind on these shores. Britain and the British people of today are essentially new arrivals - products only of the last influx 12,000 years."
When the sea level is so low that you can walk across the Channel from France it is so cold that England is covered by an ice-sheet and not inhabitable.

When it is warm enough to make the land inhabitable the heat melts the ice and the meltwater raises the sea-level making it impossible to walk across the English Channel.

When it is easy to walk to Britain across the channel, it is too cold to want to be here. When it is warm enough to want to be in Britain, the way is blocked by the seawater in the English Channel.

Note that the graph does NOT show humans living in Britain during the coldest periods. They are only there during the warm periods, and are not there when it is coldest.. 

This is relevant because there was literally zero people living in Brighton at all - AND YET THE CLIMATE CHANGED. It performed a massive change all the way from GLOBAL COOLING to GLOBAL WARMING.

For thousands of years there was literally zero output of human CO2 in the UK and yet there were huge climate changes.

Not only weren't there coal fired power stations and gas guzzling cars - there weren't even any tree hugging cavemen. And yet the climate changed MULTIPLE TIMES. Global Warming happened MULTIPLE TIMES.
 

Superimposed Graphs


Here we superimpose the "Sea Level Curve" onto the "Temperature and Human Habitation Curve" to show how well they match.

Repeatedly, as the temperature goes up, the sea level goes up.

When it is very cold - for example about 450,000 years ago - the sea level is very low.

Then it starts to warm again and a few thousand years later the sea level begins to rise.

The explanation for why as the temperature goes up, the sea level goes up seems obvious.

As the temperature goes up the ice melts and turns into water that flows into the sea, raising the sea-level..

As the temperature goes down the water freezes and turns into ice which lowers the sea level.

Note that the sea itself must repeatedly warm and cool - so the current ocean warming is NOT unusual. It is just as usual as the ocean cooling.
 

More Evidence That The Ice Sheets have Stretched All The Way To The North Pole - 18,000 Ago The Polar Ice Cap Stretched All The Way To London (Again)


 
This image from NOAA compares the polar ice cap 18,000 years ago (when there was a glacial/cold period) with the Polar Ice Cap of today (when there is an Inter-Glacial)

The images look down from above the North Pole and the red circles point to where the UK was then (left hand image) and is now (right hand image).

You can see that 18,000 years ago (left hand image) the polar ice cap extended all the way to London, and has shrunk since then to less than 1/4 of that area (right hand image).

Note also that in the left hand image which depicts the UK 18,000 years ago, the entire English Channel is green in colour and therefore above sea level. The English Channel is dry land.

For the last 18,000 years the Polar Ice cap has been melting and shrinking, from a time when it was so big that it reached London to a time when it is so small it is the other side of Greenland.

At the same time the sea level has been rising because of the melted ice, and Brighton is now a sea-side town on an English Channel full of seawater.
 

More Evidence That The English Channel wasn't full of seawater until recent times:- Pevensey Bay (near Brighton) only filled with seawater 5000 years ago.  Pevensey Bay is where Julius Caesar first landed in 55BC.

“The image ... shows schematically how sea levels have risen since the last ice age and that the sea only reached Pevensey about 5,000 year before today" from:-
 
The image to the left should be animated, but may not be animated in your particular browser.


 

NEW YORK

One for the Americans - a brief aside to show the applicability of this account of the English Channel to native New Yorkers.

 

The land that New York stands upon used to extend all the way to the edge of the dark blue part of the map, according to the USGS.
"The Hudson Shelf Valley is thought to have been repeatedly downcut during periods of Pleistocene marine regression  This downcutting possibly was amplified by the proposed catastrophic drainage of late Wisconsinan glacial lakes 12,000 - 14,000 yrBP. The shoreline was located approximately at the 60 m isobath at this time.
So, 12,000 years ago that area in light blue was DRY LAND , and the sea has risen that much since then.

The USGS hint that the sea level has risen AND FALLEN (and risen again) with the statement:-
 
"The repeated emergence and submergence of the continental shelf "

quoted from the USGS

The sea level at New York has risen 60 metres in 12,000 years.  That's 5 metres every 1000 years or 5mm per year (on "average").

If the Pilgrim Fathers had landed 12,000 years ago, they would have landed 200 miles out to sea

If you read the USGS info you'll see its general similarity to the account given here of Brighton :-
 
* rise and fall of sea levels
* mega flood

You could produce a similar account for every city on the coast of every country from Alaska to New Zealand. 

Why don't YOU do it for YOUR nearest coastal city?

The UN headquarters building is in New York. They should have this account of climate change in the foyer of their building.

AUSTRALIA

Here's one for the Aussies.  A brief aside to show the applicability of this account of the English Channel to Australians.




The image above shows
1/ On the left hand side:-
    A map of Australia during the last Glacial when the sea level was 120 meters lower than it is now.
    Notice that you could walk to Papua New Guinea back then.

2/ On the right hand side:-
    A map of Australia today.

I got the image from the Georgia Institute Of Tech . I don't know where they got it from.

If you are interested then I suggest you gather the evidence to show that the left hand image keeps transforming into the right hand image  - and then back again as the sea level rises and falls. 

Every 100,000 years the sea level starts where the right image shows it to be, then spends 80,000 years sinking down to where the left-hand image shows it to be. Then in only 20,000 years it rises back to where the right-hand image shows it to be - with the likelyhood of rising even higher.

Over and over again.

By The Way - What was happening to the Soloman Islands, the Maldives and Kiribati when the sea level was 120 meter lower? What was the Great Barrier Reef doing? What have they all been doing for the last 20,000 years - apart from drowning? And what were they doing when the sea-level was several metres HIGHER about 7.000 years ago (see below)?
 
More Evidence That The Ice Sheets have shrunk a lot in the past 20,000 years - No ice in the Arctic AT ALL 8,000 years ago.  Polar bears survive just fine.


In a recent interview Dr.Ian Clark of the University of Ottawa, earth scientist specializing in hydrogeology and paleoclimate, pointed out that during the Holocene Hypsithermal of some 8,000 years ago, a period of warming when there was no ice at all in the arctic, polar bears were highly adaptable and ‘survived just fine’ in a warm, green (ice-free) arctic



TEMPERATURE HIGHER


The "Holocene Hypsithermal" mentioned above was a warm period during roughly the interval 9,000 to 5,000 years BP as illustrated on the graph below from Greenland Ice Cores .



Notice the current warming (shown in red) and how much less it is than the Holocene Hypsithermal and the Roman and Medieval warm periods.
 
Below is a short video looking at the same data and contrasting the current temperatures (over which such a fuss is being made) with temperatures from just a few thousand years ago.


 

SEA LEVEL HIGHER

Lots of evidence from all over the world that the sea-level was HIGHER about 7000 years ago than it is now. I speculate that - if the polar ice-cap had melted, then it seems reasonable that the sea-level would have risen.  Whatever the actual cause the following long list of academic references should establish that the sea level was higher all over the world about 7000 years ago. 

(Don't bother to read all these academic references the first time through - they are just there to make a point convincingly. I suggest that you skip ahead until the section titled "Summary and Conclusion" )


Prieto et al., 2016 (Argentina, Uruguay)
"Analysis of the RSL [relative sea level] database revealed that the RSL [relative sea level] rose to reach the present level at or before c. 7000 cal yr BP, with the peak of the sea-level highstand c. +4 m [above present] between c. 6000 and 5500 cal yr BP (depending on the statistical method used) or at c. 7000 cal yr BP according to the ICE-6G model prediction, gradually falling after this time to the present position … Particularly for the Río de la Plata (RDP), a Holocene RSL curve was presented by Cavallotto et al. (2004) based on 14 uncalibrated 14C ages from selected samples from the southwestern coast of the RDP (Argentina). This RSL curve was re-plotted by Gyllencreutz et al. (2010) using the same index points and qualitative approach but using the calibrated ages. It shows rising sea-levels following the Last Glacial Termination (LGT), reaching a RSL [relative sea level] maximum of +6.5 m above present at c. 6500 cal yr BP, followed by a stepped regressive trend towards the present (Fig. 2a)."
 
"Results: The data shows a period of RSL [relative sea level] highstand at c. 2.2 m above present MSL [mean sea level] between c. 5.0 and 4.0 ka BP [5,000 to 4,000 years before present] .After that, RSL drops by c. 1.3 m between c. 4.0 and 3.4 ka BP to an elevation roughly 1 m above present MSL. Since then, RSL has been falling at more or less even rates."
Lee et al., 2016 (Southeast Australia)
 
The configuration suggests surface inundation of the upper sediments by marine water during the mid-Holocene (c. 2–8 kyr BP), when "sea level was 1–2 m above today's level."
 
"The Holocene-high-stand (HHS) inferred from oyster fossils (Saccostrea echinata and Saccostrea malaboensis) is 2.7 m [above present sea level] at ca. 3500 years ago, after which sea level gradually fell to present level."
—---

May et al., 2016 (Western Australia)
 
Beach ridge evolution over a millennial time scale is also indicated by the landward rise of the sequence possibly corresponding to the mid-Holocene sea-level highstand of WA [Western Australia] of at least 1-2 m above present mean sea level."

Haghani et al., 2016 (Caspian Sea)
 
"Caspian Sea (CS) water level has fluctuated repeatedly with an amplitude of larger than 25m during the Holocene
without any link with the eustatic sea level. …. The data from the Langarud sequence indicate that the CSL [Caspian Sea level] rose to at least -21.44m during that time (i.e.  >; 6m higher than at present), as Langarud was probably not on the shore itself but was affected by distal brackish water flooding. This result is in line with historical findings about the CSL high-stand during the 14th and the early 15th centuries
. … This massive brackish water invasion would have caused a serious disruption to food supply to Persia."
 
Highlights "We reconstruct Holocene paleoenvironmental changes and sea levels by diatom analysis. Average rates of sea-level rise and fall are estimated during the Holocene. Relative sea level during Holocene highstand reached 1.9 m [higher than today] during 6400–6500 cal yr BP [calendar years before present]."

Leonard et al., 2016 (Great Barrier Reef)
Holocene sea level instability in the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia
 
"RSL [relative sea level] stabilised ~0.2 m above present levels by 900 yr BP. While the mechanism of the RSL instability is still uncertain, the alignment with previously reported RSL oscillations, rapid global climate changes and mid-Holocene reef "turn-off" on the GBR are discussed."

Clement et al., 2016 (New Zealand)
 
"In North Island locations the early-Holocene sea-level highstand was quite pronounced, with RSL [relative sea level] up to 2.75 m higher than present. In the South Island the onset of highstand conditions was later, with the first attainment of PMSL being between 7000–6400 cal yr BP. In the mid-Holocene the northern North Island experienced the largest sea-level highstand, with RSL up to 3.00 m higher than present"
Zondervan, 2016 (Great Barrier Reef)
 
"Complete in-situ fossil coral heads have been found on beach rock of One Tree Island, a small cay in the Capricorn Group on the Great Barrier Reef. Measurements against the present low-tide mark provide a [Holocene] high stand of at least +2.85 m [above present sea levels] … Although the late Holocene high stand has been debated in the past (e.g. Belperio 1979, Thom et al. 1968), more evidence now supports a sea level high stand of at least + 1- 2 m relative to present sea levels (Baker & Haworth 1997, 2000, Collins et al. 2006, Larcombe et al. 1995, Lewis et al. 2008, Sloss et al. 2007)."

Mann et al., 2016 (Indonesia/Strait of Makassar)
 
"Radiometrically calibrated ages from emergent fossil microatolls on Pulau Panambungan indicate a relative sea-level highstand not exceeding 0.5 m above present at ca. 5600 cal. yr BP"

Wündsch et al., 2016 (South Africa)
 
"Compared to the present, mostly drier conditions and a greater marine influence due to a higher sea level are inferred for the period between 4210 and 2710 cal BP [calendar years before present]."

Engel et al., 2015 (Western Australia)
 
"The foredunes overlie upper beach deposits located up to >2m above the present upper beach level and provide evidence for a higher mid-Holocene RSL [relative sea level]."
Lewis et al., 2015 (Northeastern Australia)
 
"[D]ata show a Holocene sea-level highstand of 1–2 m higher than present which extended from ca. 7500 to 2000 yr ago (Woodroffe, 2003; Sloss et al., 2007; Lewis et al., 2013). The hydro-isostatic adjustment is thought to account for these 1–2 m sea-level changes to present levels over the past 2000 yr (Lambeck and Nakada, 1990; Lambeck, 2002)."
Lokier et al., 2015 (Persian Gulf)
 
Mid-Holocene transgression of the Gulf surpassed today's sea level by 7100–6890 cal yr BP, attaining a highstand of >1 m above current sea level shortly after 5290–4570 cal yr BP before falling back to current levels by 1440–1170 cal yr BP
."

"In southern Brazil, falling RSL [relative sea level] following a 2–4 m [above present sea level] highstand at 5 to 6 ka [5,000 to 6,000 years ago] forced coastal progradation."

There are lots more similar references. I put these in to indicate that the sea level was higher all over the world - including Australia and New Zealand.


So - only 7000 years ago

  • It was WARMER than it is now.

  • There was NO ICE at the North Pole

  • The SEA LEVEL all over the world was several meters HIGHER




SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION


There have been 10 significant Climate Changes in the last 500,000 years NONE of them was caused by man-made CO2


5 times it has got colder -
We've had periods of Global COOLING called "Glacials" during which the English Channel emptied of sea water and the Polar Ice Cap grew so big that it reached London.

5 times it has got warmer -
We've had periods of Global WARMING called "Inter-Glacials" during which the English Channel filled with sea water and the Polar Ice Cap shrunk to be so small that it was the other side of Greenland.

That's ten climate changes that many Ecofascists deny.

CYCLES

One way of interpreting the "Sea Level Graph" is that it is "cyclic." Is doesn't show 10 separate Climate Changes juxtaposed at random, it shows 5 pairs of first decreasing and then increasing sea-level. 5 "Cycles" of climate change.

This is relevant because there is another climate cycle that people are familiar with called "The Seasons"
 
People who know about seasons know that we have seasons like winter and summer. They know from experience that in summer it gets warmer, but later in winter it gets colder. So, if it's hot now in summer, you can be sure that soon it will get cold again. And if it is cold now in winter, then you can be sure that it will eventually get warmer again.
 
There are many possible climate cycles such as the Milankovitch cycle or the Bond Cycle.



[
People who believe in the Milankovitch cycle believe that the relative positions of the earth and sun have a major effect on the climate.
Here are some good article on CYCLES :-
 
But Ecofascists DENY that there are cycles and insist that if it is warming now then that means that it will never get colder again. It will keep getting warmer and warmer 'til the whole planet melts. They argue that just because in the past global warming was always followed by global cooling that is no reason to suspect that it will continue to do so in the future. For them the past is no guide to the future.

The Ecofascists can't explain WHY the previous cycles occurred - they don't know what CAUSED the changes of climate, but they do know that whatever it was it stopped when humans started to build coal-fired power stations.
 
They say that the only way to stop us all from dying and to also stop the whole planet from catching fire and burning to a crisp is:-
  • To revert to a cavemen technology and
  • To submit to a totalitarian government.
The "Temperature and Human Habitation" graph also shows cycles - it shows 5 pairs of decreasing and then increasing temperatures. The similarity to the Sea Change Graph is very clear in the "Superimposed Graphs" graph.
 
Currently we are in a period of Global Warming.

I contend that if we try to predict the future based on the past, and project forward using the graphs :-
  • It is likely to get warmer by a few degrees
  • The Polar Ice Cap is likely to to keep melting and shrinking
  • The sea level is likely to continue to rise for about another 20 meters
Then, after that, it will get colder, the Polar Ice Cap will get so big that it covers most of Britain and the sea level will fall below the depth of the English channel. AGAIN. I contend that after Global Warming we should expect Global Cooling.
 
HOW LONG A CYCLE TAKES.
 
Sea level rise of 150 meters takes about 20,000 years, which is an "average" of about 7.5  meters every 1000 years or about 7.5 mm per year.




Sea level rise in more detail - An "S" shaped curve not a straight line.
(Ecofascists claim that only the most recent bit of it was caused by humans.)
 

Using the "average" slope of "The Sea Level Rise" graph"  - assuming it to be a straight line even though the above graph shows that it clearly isn't. 

100 Years Ago - The sea would have been 0.75 Meters Lower
The Battle of the Somme in 1916 (during WW1) was 100 years ago. At the straight-line average rate of 0.75m per century, the sea level at Brighton would have risen about 0.75m since the Battle of the Somme.
 
1000 Years Ago - The sea would have been 7.5 Meters Lower.
The Battle of Hastings was about 1000 years ago (1066), so this means that (using the "average" slope of the graph, not the actual slope) the English Channel would have been  about 7.5 meters lower when the Normans came ashore with their horses.
 
2000 Years Ago - The sea would have been 15 Meters Lower.
Julius Caesar and his Roman legions came, saw and conquered about 2000 years ago (55BC), so this means that the English Channel would have been about 15 meters lower when the Romans came ashore at Pevensey with their wine and their public safety .
 
20,000 Years Ago - (the last "Glacial") - The sea actually was 150 Meters Lower
20 times longer ago than the Battle of Hastings:-
10 times longer ago than The Roman Invasion:-
  • You could walk from Brighton to France because the English Channel had no seawater in it.
  • The Polar Ice Cap was so big that it reached London.

20,000 years ago the Normans could have ridden their horses across the channel but they would not have wanted to because it was so cold in the UK.  If they had ridden on to London then they would have been able to see the edge of the Polar Ice Sheet ("North Pole") and then have used it to ski all the way to the North Pole - assuming that their horses could ski.

20,000 years ago the Romans could have marched across the channel but they would not have wanted to because it was so cold in the UK.  If they had marched on to Londinium then they would have been able to see the edge of the Polar Ice Sheet ("North Pole") and then have used it to ski all the way to the North Pole - assuming that their legions could ski.

In only 20 times the-length-of-time-since-the-Battle-of-Hastings
  • The Polar Ice Cap has shrunk from London to the other side of Greenland.
  • The English Channel has filled with sea water.
  • The temperature has risen from freezing to mild.
In only 10 times the-length-of-time-since-the-Romans-invaded

  • The Polar Ice Cap has shrunk from London to the other side of Greenland.
  • The English Channel has filled with sea water.
  • The temperature has risen from freezing to mild.
100,000 Years Ago - (the last "Inter-Glacial") - The sea was 20 Meters higher
  • It was warmer then than it is now, but it slowly got so cold that the Polar Ice cap grew from roughly where it is now to being so big it reached London.
  • The sea level fell from 20 meters higher than it is now - (Brighton is currently a sea side town) - to the point where you could see the bottom of the English Channel which was high and dry and cold.
  • Then it quickly got so warm that the ice melted and retreated to the North Pole and the sea level rose to the point where Brighton was a sea-side town again
In only 100 times the length of time since the Battle of Hastings, we've gone through ONE cycle of cold and then warm.

In only 500 times the length of time since the Battle of Hastings, we've gone through FIVE cycles of cold and then warm.

Lets analogise the same lengths of time in terms the Battle of the Somme

The battle of the Somme was 100 years ago, so lets call 100 years  a "Somme."

10 Sommes ago was the Battle of Hastings.
20 Sommes ago the Romans landed at Pevensey
200 Sommes ago was the coldest part of the last ice age.
         * The English channel had no seawater in it.
         * The Polar Ice Cap reached all the way to London.
1000 Sommes ago
          * The sea level was 20 meters higher than it is now
          * A period of Global Warming had just ended and a period of Global Cooling had just started.
             This period of global cooling lasted 800 Sommes and for most of it Brighton was many metres higher than the average sea level

Then 200 Sommes ago it started to get warmer
In only 200 Sommes, the ice has retreated from London all the way to the other side of Greenland.
In only 200 Sommes, the sea has risen the height of the i360.

How often is Brighton a sea-side town?

If you look at the "The Sea Level Graph" Brighton has been a sea-side town whenever the red "sea level" graph cuts the black horizontal line labelled "today's mean sea level"

According to the graph, the last time that this happened was about 100,000 years ago when the sea level was falling from a height of 20 meters ABOVE the current Brighton. For a few thousand years or so Brighton had been beneath the sea because global WARMING/Climate Change had melted the ice and made the sea level rise, but now global COOLING/Climate Change was freezing the sea and causing the sea level to drop.

On its way down from 20 meters higher than it is now it briefly exposed Brighton as a sea side town, then the sea-level kept falling as it got colder and Brighton got to be more and more of a cliff-top town overlooking a wide valley that was getting colder.

Eventually the sea level fell so much the the bottom of the valley became a dry plain, with a river running through the middle of it too far away from Brighton to be seen. You could basically walk from Brighton to France except for the river in the middle.



This is an artist's impression of the BOTTOM of the English Channel 20,000 years ago. Notice that there is no salt-water in it. The sea-bed is dry. Notice also that it is very cold and overcast. It is the cold temperatures that have frozen the world's water and locked it into the Ice Sheets, reducing the sea-level.

Then it all reverses again about 20 "Battles of Hastings" ago.

The weather starts to get warmer (Global Cooling tips over into Global Warming.) The ice melts so much that the sea level rises and fills the English Channel and Brighton again becomes a sea-side town.

So Brighton is a sea side town twice in each 100,000 year cycle -
 
1. Once at the end of a short, sharp period of Global Warming when it's getting warmer and the sea level is rising.
 
2. Once again a few thousand years later at the start of a long period of Global Cooling when it is getting colder and the sea level is falling.
 
Brighton is a sea-side town whenever it is not too hot and whenever it is not too cold. It is currently a sea-side town because the weather has been getting warmer for the last 20,000 years - We've had GLOBAL WARMING for the last 20,000 years.

Brighton has been a sea-side town 9 times in the last 500,000 years. 5 times when it was getting warmer and 4 times when it was getting colder. (I know that the Sea Level Graph shows 12 cuts, but I am simplifying things.)

KEY POINT


The Ecofascists (the Guardian, BBC and most politicians and bureaucrats) say that the only way for Brighton to avoid being flooded by the sea is to become "sustainable".

"Sustainable" means being
* De-industrialised - especially not using coal-fired power stations and
* Using only renewable resources such as wood and cotton and
* Not using any non-renewable resources such as plastic or metal.

It also means as handing complete control of every aspect of your life - including your culture and even your happiness to some scheming climate-liar of a politician.

Sustainability is both poverty and slavery.

(Please see my blog articles on "sustainability"  :-
)

A sustainable lifestyle is one that resembles that of a medieval peasant, or better still a stone age caveman


Ecofascists claim that only if we live as stone age cavemen can we avoid CLIMATE CHANGE and the destruction of "the whole planet".


SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT - No metal or plastic - only renewable materials used


But the graphs show that there were already humans living like stone-age cavemen at each of the previous 8 Climate Changes.

YET IT STILL DIDN'T STOP EITHER THE CLIMATE OR THE SEA LEVEL FROM CHANGING.
 
Which proves that living like cavemen doesn't stop sea-level rise. And de-industrialising Brighton will not stop the climate from changing and thus make it "sustainable."

Humans living like low-tech peasants didn't stop the climate from changing in the past.

It didn't stop Climate Change the 4 times the temperature and sea were going up or the 4 times the temperature and sea were going down.

Humans lived sustainably - that means just like cavemen - and yet the climate still changed.

Stoneage cavemen "practised sustainability" and "embraced Permaculture " but were continually driven from the UK by COLD (Global COOLING is the Climate Change that Ecofascists deny!)

Sustainable living didn't stop the Global Warming changing to Global Cooling and it also didn't stop the Global Cooling changing back to Global Warming.






Humans didn't use coal fired powered power stations yet the climate still changed. They didn't drive gas-guzzling cars and yet the climate still changed. Or maybe Ecofascists think that they did! Maybe it was cavewomen, driving their cavechildren to caveschool in 4 by 4's that caused the Climate to Change.

There were humans living like cavemen here in England during all the climate changes (of the last 500,000 years) from Warming to Cooling and yet they didn't stop those climate changes from happening.

There were humans living like cavemen here in Europe during all the climate changes from Cooling to Warming and back again (of the last 500,000 years) and yet they didn't stop those climate changes from happening.

Living sustainably in Europe has no more effect on the climate change than living sustainably in England.

The graphs also show that it wasn't "Capitalism" that caused climate change. I've actually seen the slogan "Stop Capitalism Stop Climate Change" here in Brighton. Yet these cavemen didn't practise capitalism. They weren't even Christian and yet the climate changed.

ECOFASCISTS DENY CLIMATE CHANGE

Ecofascists deny the Global Warming that began 20,000 years ago. They also deny the melting of the Polar Ice Cap that began at the same time. The reason that they deny that warming and melting is because they cannot blame it on coal fired power stations and gas guzzling cars.

They not only deny Global Warming but they also deny that they are Global Warming deniers.
For them denying Global Warming doesn't make you a Global Warming denier.

Ecofascists also completely deny Global Cooling as a possible future. Global Cooling is a Climate Change that in Brighton they violently deny - and yet they also deny that they are Climate Change deniers. For EcoFascists - Denying a climate change doesn't make you a Climate Change Denier.

Ecofacists also claim that they can stop the climate from changing - "Stop Climate Change" they shout.

They claim that whatever the climate is now it can be made to stay that way FOREVER.

Which means that basically all the graphs shown in this blog article can be made to flat line into the future. Not only won't it get any hotter or colder but the sea level will remain exactly the same - FOREVER.



FLATLINED SEA LEVEL GRAPH




Ecofascists are worse than the flattering courtiers of King Canute



Canute's courtiers only claimed that the king could stop the tide from rising whereas Ecofascists claim that politicians can stop the average sea-level from both rising and falling.

Ecofascists insist that the last 20,000 years of Global Warming either has STOPPED or can be stopped - but they don't specify when. ("Stop Climate Change")

Ecofascists insist that the last 500,000 year cycle of warming followed by cooling (followed by warming etc) either has STOPPED or can be stopped - but they don't specify when. ("Stop Climate Change")

Ecofascists say they can stop the climate changing FOREVER. No more glacials  nor inter-glacials, no more climate change - EVER.

All we have to do to achieve this fixed stability is to "decarbonise" and live "sustainably."

To live sustainably means :-

Living like stone age cavemen will NOT stop the climate from changing. 

 The Climate Con is the setup for the Sustainability Scam

The Sustainability Scam is an evil hoax.

Sustainability is poverty and slavery



IT'S NOT ABOUT CLIMATE
ITS ABOUT POLITICS AND THE DESTRUCTION OF ECONOMIES




Rajendra Pachauri who was the chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) said:-
"I am not going to rest easy until I have articulated in every possible form the need to bring about major structural changes in economic growth and development. That’s the real issue. Climate change is just a part of it."

Source:- "Nature" 19 December 2007

 




Addendum: - ECOFASCIST



THE GREEN JIHAD
for a
GREEN CALIPHATE

Some readers may think that the term "fascist" is too strong a word for the Climate Con Men (and women).

But the reader should familiarise themselves with the phrases:- "hard green" "deep ecology" and "Eco-terrorism"

One definition of Hard green says:-
"Hard green" refers to a branch of the environmentalism movement that considers humans solely as a polluting influence on the environment, and feels that whatever action is needed to repair human-generated damage to the environment should be undertaken no matter what its effect on humanity.

The biggest Hard Green Eco-Terrorist, Climate Liars in this country are the Government, who made the following ecofascist movie.



From my earlier blog-article you will know that this extremely fascist move was made by a public relations firm at the request of a UK GOVERNMENT department.

It is also the UK government that  just admitted torturing thousands of Kenyans.

And also other war crimes - Recent British War Crimes

And of course genocide in Canada and Australia. - Canada and Australia Admit Genocide

The UK government are not just ordinary fascists - they are Ecofascists as well.

SOME ECOFASCISTS ARE ALSO WAR CRIMINALS

see also :-
see also:-

In November 2016, during an interview with the "Radio Times," Sir David Attenborough said shooting Donald Trump wasn't a bad idea if it saved the planet.

He also said that humans were "a plague on the Earth" and that in the next 50 years, the population bomb will "come home to roost." He said we had to "limit population growth or nature will do it for us", and "we are using up the world's resources and preventing other species from thriving"


 see also:-
 

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